The email accounts of various other noticeable people, including previous Assistant of State Colin Powell as well as CIA Director John O. Brennan, were also hacked, bring about brand-new fears regarding the discretion of emails. The legal and also constitutional capability of a head of state to pardon himself (self-pardon) is an unsolved issue. During the Watergate detraction, President Nixon's attorney suggested that a self-pardon would certainly be legal, while the Department of Justice issued a memorandum point of view on August 5, 1974, stating that a president can not pardon himself. The 1974 memo outlined a circumstance in which, under the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the USA Constitution, the president can proclaim himself not able to execute his tasks as well as might appoint the vice president as acting head of state. These as well as other occasions resulted in the birth of the Black Lives Matter motion, which war physical violence and also systemic racism towards black individuals. Some in the police community criticized Obama's condemnation of racial bias after events in which cops activity led to the fatality of African-American men, while some racial justice activists criticized Obama's expressions of compassion for the police. Though Obama went into office unwilling to speak about race, by 2014 he started freely talking about the disadvantages dealt with by many members of minority groups. The acting head of state could then excuse the president and also "thereafter the head of state can either resign or return to the obligations of his office." In 2011, via the firm of its United States Presidency Centre, the Institute for the Study of the Americas (located in the College of London's School of Advanced Research) released the first ever UK academic survey to rate presidents. Travel Journal In a March 2016 Gallup survey, virtually one third of Americans said they fretted "a large amount" regarding race relations, a higher figure than in any kind of previous Gallup poll because 2001. Cybersecurity became an important concern during Obama's presidency. In 2009, the Obama management established USA Cyber Command, a militaries sub-unified command charged with defending the armed force against cyber assaults. Sony Photo experienced a major hack in 2014, which the United States federal government alleges originated from North Korea punitive for the release of the movie The Meeting. This polled the opinion of British experts in American background as well as politics to assess presidential efficiency. They also offered an acting assessment of Barack Obama, yet his incomplete presidency was not consisted of in the study. Abraham Lincoln, Franklin D. Roosevelt, as well as George Washington are frequently listed as the three highest-rated head of states among chroniclers. The continuing to be areas within the Leading 10 are often rounded out by Theodore Roosevelt, Thomas Jefferson, Harry S. Truman, Woodrow Wilson, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Andrew Jackson, as well as John F. Kennedy. China likewise established advanced cyber-warfare pressures. In 2015, Obama declared cyber-attacks on the United States a nationwide emergency situation. Later on that year, Obama signed the Cybersecurity Info Sharing Act into law. In 2016, the Autonomous National Committee as well as various other US organizations were hacked, as well as the FBI and also CIA ended that Russia funded the hacking in hopes helpful Donald Trump win the 2016 governmental political election.